三身

trikāya. [lang id =1028]三寶身 The threefold body or nature of a Buddha, i.e. the [lang id =1028]法, [lang id =1028]報, and [lang id =1028]化身, or (sa) dharmakāya, (sa) sambhogakāya, and (sa) nirmāṇakāya. The three are defined as [lang id =1028]自性, [lang id =1028]受用, and [lang id =1028]變化, the Buddha-body per se, or in its essential nature; his body of bliss, which he "receives" for his own "use" and enjoyment; and his body of transformation, by which he can appear in any form; i.e. spiritual, or essential; glorified; revealed. While the doctrine of the (sa) trikāya is a Mahāyāna concept, it partly results from the Hīnayāna idealization of the earthly Buddha with his thirty-two signs, eighty physical marks, clairvoyance, clairaudience, holiness, purity, wisdom, pity, etc. Mahāyāna, however, proceeded to conceive of Buddha as the Universal, the All, with infinity of forms, yet above all our concepts of unity or diversity. To every Buddha Mahāyāna attributed a three-fold body: that of essential Buddha; that of joy or enjoyment of the fruits of his past saving labours; that of power to transform himself at will to any shape for omnipresent salvation of those who need him. The trinity finds different methods of expression, e.g. Vairocana is entitled [lang id =1028]法身, the embodiment of the Law, shining everywhere, enlightening all; Locana is [lang id =1028]報身; c.f. [lang id =1028]三賓, the embodiment of purity and bliss; Śākyamuni is [lang id =1028]化身 or Buddha revealed. In the esoteric sect they are [lang id =1028]法 Vairocana, [lang id =1028]報 Amitābha, and [lang id =1028]化 Śākyamuni. The [lang id =1028]三賓 are also [lang id =1028]法 dharma, [lang id =1028]報 saṅgha, [lang id =1028]化 buddha. Nevertheless, the three are considered as a trinity, the three being essentially one, each in the other.
(1) [lang id =1028]法身 Dharmakāya in its earliest conception was that of the body of the dharma, or truth, as preached by Śākyamuni; later it became his mind or soul in contrast with his material body. In Mādhyamika, the (sa) dharmakāya was the only reality, i.e. the void, or the immateria1, the ground of all phenomena; in other words, the [lang id =1028]真如 the (sa) tathāgatagarbha, the (sa) bhūtatathatā. According to the Huayan (Kegon) School it is the [lang id =1028]理or noumenon, while the other two are[lang id =1028]氣or phenomenal aspects. "For the Vijñānavāda... the body of the law as highest reality is the void intelligence, whose infection ((sa) saṃkleҫa) results in the process of birth and death, whilst its purification brings about Nirvāṇa, or its restoration to its primitive transparence" (Keith). The "body of the law is the true reality of everything". Nevertheless, in Mahāyāna every Buddha has his own [lang id =1028]法身; e.g. in the (sa) dharmakāya aspect we have the designation Amitābha, who in his (sa) saṃbhogakāya aspect is styled Amitāyus.
(2) [lang id =1028]報身Sambhogakāya, a Buddha's reward body, or body of enjoyment of the merits he attained as a bodhisattva; in other words, a Buddha in glory in his heaven. This is the form of Buddha as an object of worship. It is defined in two aspects, (a) [lang id =1028]自受用身 for his own bliss, and (b) [lang id =1028]他受用身 for the sake of others, revealing himself in his glory to bodhisattvas, enlightening and inspiring them. By wisdom a Buddha's (sa) dharmakāya is attained, by bodhisattva-merits his (sa) saṃbhogakāya. Not only has every Buddha all the three bodies or aspects, but as all men are of the same essence, or nature, as Buddhas, they are therefore potential Buddhas and are in and of the (sa) trikāya. Moreover, (sa) trikāya is not divided, for a Buddha in his [lang id =1028]化身 is still one with his [lang id =1028]法身 and [lang id =1028]報身, all three bodies being co-existent.
(3) [lang id =1028]化身; [lang id =1028]應身; [lang id =1028]應化身 (sa) nirmāṇakāya, a Buddha's transformation, or miraculous body, in which he appears at will and in any form outside his heaven, e.g. as Śākyamuni among men.
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又作三佛身, 身者聚集之義, 聚集諸法而成身, 故理法之聚集稱為法身, 智法之聚集稱為報身, 功德法之聚集稱為應身。 又作法身佛、 報身佛、 應身佛。 《解深密經》卷五所說三身, 為法身、 解脫身、 化身。 其中化身指八相示現之身;解脫身指五分法身;法身指於諸地波羅蜜多, 善修出離轉依成滿之妙果。 蓋五分法身, 聲聞獨覺亦可得之, 故單就此身而言, 二乘與如來無異。 梁譯《攝大乘論釋》卷十三載: ‘二乘道究竟果, 名解脫知見。 二乘解脫知見中無三身, 菩薩解脫知見中有三身差別。 何以故? 二乘不能滅智障, 無一切智故, 不得圓滿清淨法身, 無大慈悲, 不行利益他事故, 無應化兩身。’ 故知二乘之解脫身, 無法身及應、 化等身。
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﹝出金光明經玄義﹞ 身即聚集之義, 謂聚集諸法而成身也。 所謂理法聚名法身, 智法聚名報身, 功德法聚名應身。 (理法聚名法身者, 謂聚集法性之法而成此身也。 智法聚名報身者, 智即能契法性之智, 智與法性相合而成此身也。 功德法聚名應身者, 由智契理, 聚集一切功德之法, 起用化他, 隨機應現, 而成此身也。 ) 〔一、 法身〕, 謂始從初住, 顯出法性之理, 乃至妙覺極果, 理聚方圓, 是名法身。 (初住者, 即十住位中初之一住也。 妙覺者, 自覺覺他, 覺行圓滿, 不可思議, 故名妙覺。 理聚方圓者, 妙覺所證, 法性之理方始圓滿也。 ) 〔二、 報身〕, 謂始從初住, 終至妙覺極果, 智聚方圓; 由智契理, 報得此身, 故云報身。 〔三、 應身〕, 謂始從初住, 終至妙覺極果, 功德法聚方圓, 故能隨機應現, 說種種法, 度諸眾生, 故名應身。
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法身、 報身、 應身。 法身又名自性身, 或法性身, 即常住不滅, 人人本具的真性, 不過我們眾生迷而不顯, 佛是覺而證得了; 報身是由佛的智慧功德所成的, 有自受用報身和他受用報身的分別, 自受用報身是佛自己受用內證法樂之身, 他受用報身是佛為十地菩薩說法而變現的身; 應身又名應化身, 或變化身, 即應眾生之機緣而變現出來的佛身。

Dictionary of Buddhist terms. 2013.

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  • 三身 — 內煉名詞。 謂自有身, 離合身, 妙無身。 指在煉養過程中, 三種不同境界的感受。 《三極至命筌蹄》: 〝身有三, 一曰自有身。 所謂養就嬰兒自我做, 非是父精娘血者也。 二者離合身, 謂坐在立亡, 身外有身。 三者妙無身, 所謂聚則成形, 散則成氣者〞。 指法身、 報身、 化身。 《重陽真人金關玉鎖訣》: 〝問曰: 何者是三乘之法? 訣曰: 下乘者, 如新生孩兒;中乘者, 如小兒坐地;上乘者, 如小兒行走。 若人通此三乘, 便超三界, 欲界、 色界、 無色界, 是心性意顯具三身。… …   Explanatory dictionary of Taoism

  • 三身 — 1.傳說海外有國, 國人一首三身。 《山海經‧海外西經》: “ 三身國 在 夏后啟 北, 一首而三身。” 《淮南子‧墬形訓》: “凡海外三十六國, 自西北至西南方, 有…… 丈夫民 、 奇嵇股民 、 一臂民 、 三身民 。” 2.佛教語。 說法不一。 通常指法身、報身和化身(或應身)。 乃成佛所證之果。 《金光明最勝王經‧分別三身品》: “如是三身具足, 攝受阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。” 唐 權德輿 《酬靈徹上人以詩代書見寄》詩: “已取貝多翻半字, 還將陽燄諭三身。” 《朱子語類》卷一二五: …   Big Chineese Encyclopedy

  • 三身 — 拼音: san shen 解释: 佛教用语。 大乘佛教谓佛身有法身、 报身和化身三种。 法身指一切现象的真实性, 或称为“自性身”。 报身指佛净土世界中的佛身, 或称为“食身”、 “受用身”、 “应身”。 化身为教化利益凡夫众生而现出的形象, 如释迦牟尼佛, 或称为“变化身”。 大乘法苑义林章·卷七: “依世俗谛随机所现说有三身, 法身空理, 报身空智, 利物所现名变化身。 ” …   Taiwan national language dictionary

  • 三身 — 拼音:san shen 佛教用語。 大乘佛教謂佛身有法身﹑報身和化身三種。 法身指一切現象的真實性, 或稱為“自性身”。 報身指佛淨土世界中的佛身, 或稱為“食身”﹑“受用身”﹑“應身”。 化身為教化利益凡夫眾生而現出的形象, 如釋迦牟尼佛, 或稱為“變化身”。 大乘法苑義林章·卷七: “依世俗諦隨機所現說有三身, 法身空理, 報身空智, 利物所現名變化身。” …   Taiwan traditional national language dictionary

  • 三身如來 — 法身如來、 報身如來、 應身如來。 諸法如如不變的真理, 名法身如來; 這不變的真理和行者的智慧融匯在一處, 成妙功德, 名報身如來; 證得此真理, 隨機應化, 勝用無窮, 名應身如來。 法身如來是體, 報身如來是相, 應身如來是用, 一而成三, 三即是一。 …   Dictionary of Buddhist terms

  • 三身三德 — 三身即法身、 報身、 應身;三德即法身德、 般若德、 解脫德。 二者配列, 則法身為法身之德, 報身為般若之德, 應身為解脫之德。 參閱‘三身’條。 * * * 三身是法身、 報身、 應身。 三德是法身德、 般若德、 解脫德。 以上二者互相配對, 則法身是法身之德, 報身是般若之德, 應身是解脫之德。 …   Dictionary of Buddhist terms

  • 三身形量 — ★佛地经论七卷十五页云:如是三身,云何形量?法身,清净真如为体。 真如即是诸法实性。 法无边际,法身亦尔。 遍一切法,无处不有。 犹如虚空,不可说其形量大小。 就相而言,遍一切处。 受用身者:有色非色。 非色诸法,无形质故;亦不可说形量大小。 若就依身及所知境;亦得说言:遍一切处。 色有二种。 一者、实色。 二者、化色。 言实色者、三无数劫修感色身相好等业,转五根等有漏色身,得佛无漏五根等色。 无量相好,庄严其身。 周遍法界,称实净土。 于生死中,业有分限;阿赖耶识所变身形,大小不定。… …   Chinese law dictionary (法律词典)

  • 三身释名 — ★佛地经论七卷十二页云:虽诸如来,所依清净法界体性,无有差别;而有三身种种相异,转变不同;故名差别。 自性法身者:即是如来初自性身。 体常不变,故名自性。 力无畏等诸功德法所依止故;亦名法身。 受用即是次受用身。 能令自他受用种种大法乐故。 变化即是后变化身。 为欲利益安乐众生,示现种种变化事故。 体义、依义、众德聚义、总名为身。 如是略释三身名义。 …   Chinese law dictionary (法律词典)

  • 三身体相 — ★佛地经论七卷十二页云:又法身者:究竟转依真如为根。 一切佛法平等所依;能起一切自在作用;一切白法增上所显。 一切如来,平等自性,微妙难测,灭诸分别,绝诸戏论。 故契经言:诸佛法身,不应寻思,非寻思境;超过一切寻思戏论。 受用身者:一切功德圆满为相。 一切佛法共所集成;能起一切自在作用;一切白法增上所起。 一切如来各别自体。 微妙难测,居纯净土,任运湛然,尽未来际,自受法乐;现种种形,说种种法;令大菩萨,亦受法乐。… …   Chinese law dictionary (法律词典)

  • 三身功德有别无别 — ★佛地经论七卷十七页云:如是三身,为有各别诸功德不?如来法身,清净真如转依为相。 真实善有,本性清净。 远离一切杂染法故;一切功德所依止故;一切功德真实性故;说名具足一切功德。 无有色心差别功德。 佛受用身,具足一切色心等法真实功德,及为他现化相功德。 佛变化身,唯具一切现色心等化相功德。 是故三身,皆说具有过殑伽沙数量功德。 …   Chinese law dictionary (法律词典)

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